American Civics Research Library
|From: Encyclopedia of Advanced
American Civics, © 2003, David R. Deschesne
The Devolutionary Period
devolve “ to transfer (duty, work, or
responsibility) to someone else:...(those who, because they are too busy
or too ignorant to discharge the higher duties of self-government, have
been glad to devolve them upon their representatives)
-Charles H. Pearson.” - Thorndike/Barnhart
World Book Dictionary, © 1969.
The period of time beginning loosely around 1890 and ending sometime around the early 1920s is known as the “Devolutionary Period.” The Devolutionary Period is so-named, because of the huge transfers of power which were being set up at the state and federal level in order to turn control of our monetary system over to the soon to be established private Federal Reserve Bank and private corporations. Because of the ultimate ability of the private, run-for-profit, Federal Reserve Bank to fund our government with fictionally-created, fiat money, our entire Congress, President and state governmental infrastructures have become beholden, via legislative fiat, to the private banks and corporations who fund all aspects of those governing bodies. The Congress, Senate, and President have, in effect, due to the greed of temporary monetary gain at the genesis of the period, and perpetuated by ignorance of all future lawmakers, as well as the quiet acquiescence of the court systems, all devolved their constitutionally-enumerated powers to the Federal Reserve bank and other affiliated agencies, clubs, and corporations.
States also became de-facto businesses, licensing (for a fee) many things they previously felt no need to have an interest in.
“To put the matter bluntly, there is under way in
the United States at the present time a definite and determined movement
to change our representative republic into a socialistic democracy.” -
Why Should we Change Our Form of
Government?, ©1911 Nicholas Butler (Pres. Columbia University), p.
The beginning of the Devolutionary Period saw subtle but distinct
changes in the way our educational system, via the public schools,
teaches civics to the students. While it began in the 1900’s, the slide has been steep and
definite over the past 90+ years to the point that US History, Civics,
Government, Economics and all of the machinery that is used to maintain
and run a country is not taught to the people who, ultimately will be
electing public officials to do just that.
are many who feel that the rising generation of Americans is growing up
without any proper knowledge of the fundamental principles of American
institutions and American government. Because of this lack of
knowledge, well-meaning men lend ear quite too readily to demagogues who
propose to them all sorts of schemes without any relation, save one of
antagonism, to established political principles...
Americans of an earlier day got their training in the fundamental
principles of citizenship from the stern facts which faced them.
This was the school in which the nation's fathers were educated...
"...Today, however, one hears much less of these
fundamental principles. There are those among us, some of them in
places of responsibility and great influence, who call these principles
out-worn, antiquated, obstacles to popular government, and who would
substitute the passing desire of today for the carefully wrought design
of all time." - Why Should we
Change Our Form of Government?, ©1911 Nicholas Butler (Pres.
Columbia University), pp. 99-100. Excerpts from an address before the
National Education Association at Denver, Colorado, July 6, 1909)
During the Devolutionary Period, many states slowly and quietly
began adopting military, or “admiralty” law which is reflected by
the change in their state flags to the gold-fringe border.
Maine adopted military jurisdiction over their legislature and
courts in 1909 with the “Act designating the official flag of the State of Maine and describing
the same; providing for the carrying of such flag by the regiments of
the National Guard of the State to provide and have deposited in the
office of the Adjutant General a model of said flag and making an
The act describes the state flag as one with gold fringe and tassels and
was referred to the Committee on Military Affairs.- Maine
House Journal, 1909, p. 63
On March 6, 1902 the Bureau of the Census was established as a
permanent office (32 Stat. 51) within the Department of Commerce.
Reporting alongside the Chief Economist to the Undersecretary for
Economic Affairs, the Bureau
of Census receives all birth and death certificates from the states in
an effort to keep track of the “human resources.”
It is interesting to note that humans began to be kept track of
by the Commerce Department - since they were soon to be utilized by the
government as collateral against future loans from the yet to be formed
Federal Reserve Bank.
in 1880, the Bureau of Census recognized a “registration area”
within which death figures were collected suitable for the bureau’s
purposes. Birth figures
were added in 1915. By 1933
all states were included in the registration area for both deaths and
births.” - Lincoln
Library of essential information, Frontier Press, 1965, Vol. II
The “National Guard” began replacing the state militias as
early as 1895, which increased federal control over the states and began
removing the citizenry from their proper role in government - as
protectors of their own rights. (The "National Guard" was
supposedly created by the National Defense Act of 1916, but is mentioned
by name in the Maine House Journal, 1907, pp. 319, 681, 710, 730,
and 806; it is also discussed in the Statutes of Maine:
Freeman's Supplement, 1885-1895 - Laws of 1895, c. 3, p. 4)
In Maine, debtor prisons were eliminated in 1893 (Statutes of
Maine: Freeman's Supplement
prisons imprisoned people who borrowed money and did not pay it back.
With the money system of that time being one based primarily upon
gold or silver, if one borrowed any money and did not repay it, it was,
in fact, considered stealing. Since the upcoming Federal Reserve Bank’s theory of
money practice was based upon credit money, nothing of substantive value
was actually going to be loaned out (the monetizing of signatures via
ledger-entry accounting would become the new “money”).
Debtor's prisons had to be eliminated because this loophole would
soon be exploited for the defense of alleged debtors because debt-based
money is created from nothing and is impossible to steal in that respect
because there is no value contained in it other than a ledger-entry at
the bank. Since banks counterfeit money
from nothing as a ledger-entry and exchange it for the promissory note,
when they attempt to place “borrower” (actually, “exchanger”) in
a debtor prison for non-payment of the alleged “debt”, he could
bring up the defense that the bank did not loan any of their own money
– that is money with intrinsic value – they simply created it from
nothing the same way a counterfeiter does and exchanged it for his
promissory note, which they accepted for equal value as an asset on
This would expose
the Federal Reserve’s fraudulent fiat debt money system for the
absolute scam that it is and the whole “house of cards” would come
tumbling down around their ankles.
Potentially millions of angry Americans finding out they’ve
been stolen from wouldn't be a pretty picture, and there wouldn't be
enough prisons to put them all in.
After the “Panic of 1907”, the National Monetary Commission
was created and headed by New York Senator Nelson W. Aldrich.
The NMC was set up to review the nation’s entire financial
structure and make recommendations to Congress regarding any changes
which should be made. Senator
Aldrich was also key in the formation of the Federal Reserve Act which
privatized our nation’s money system.
In May of 1908, with the passage of the Aldrich-Vreeland
Act, banks were free to issue notes backed by commercial paper (or
promises to pay) and bonds of state and local governments
The sixteenth amendment to the US Constitution was proposed on
July 12, 1909 which would allow for the federal collection of an income
tax that was not appropriated evenly among the states - contrary to the
August 31, 1910, President Theodore Roosevelt made a speech at
Osawatomie, Kansas where he advocated a graduated income tax and
inheritance taxes. He also said, "I stand for the square
deal; property shall be the servant and not the master of the
commonwealth."- Almanac of American History, ©Brompton
Books Corporation, p. 419 This appears to be setting the
stage for property to be the "servant" by acting as collateral
for the commonwealth's new loans of artificial money - an idea that was
still being formed by Aldrich's National Monetary Commission.
On May 11, 1911 in United States v. Grimaud, the U.S. Supreme Court finds that the
Federal Government, by reason of “administrative discretion”, has
authority over forest reserves. The
Court withholds outright delegation of legislative power, but in effect
takes overall authority away from the states.
This laid the groundwork for the establishment of the 10 federal
regions during the “New Deal” era of the 1930’s and federalization
of all land in the US in order to be handed over to the banks as
collateral against the loans which would be taken out by the government.
In his first inaugural address in 1933, President Franklin D.
Roosevelt stated, “...accomplishing greatly needed projects to
stimulate and reorganize the use of our natural resources.”
On February 25, 1913 the 16th Amendment to the Constitution was
fraudulently passed and accepted by a misinformed public, to be followed
by the Federal Reserve Act in December of that year.
On October 22, 1914 the Revenue Act passes Congress, imposing the
first income tax on incomes over $3,000.
The Devolutionary period also witnessed our Republican form of
government phased out and replaced by a populist/democratic national
government with the passage of the 17th amendment which took away the
right of the State Legislatures to delegate Senators to Congress and,
instead allowed Senators to be popularly elected by the people.
In the beginning years of the 20th century, most of the younger
Western States and many of the older ones had passed resolutions in
favor of a change from the nomination of Senators by the legislature of
the respective States to a popular election. (see
Our National Government, Perry Mason Company, © 1904, p. 121).
Since the people at large already popularly elected the House of
Representatives, and the Senate was beginning to be popularly elected as
well, the States were finally excluded from the decision-making at the
federal level. This
effectively abolished the Federal side of our bi-cameral system by
relinquishing the rights of the State Legislatures to nominate their own
representative. Now both
the House and the Senate are essentially popularly elected
“representatives” of the people with the States having no
representation at all. Because
Senators are now accountable to the people, instead of the State
legislatures, we now have a purely national/democratic government only,
with the abolition of the States’ representatives and the dissolution
of the Republican form constructed by the Federal Constitution
Some states began forming standing armies in the guise of
“State police” at the beginning of the Devolutionary Period.
This new system of law “enforcement” was put in place in
order to enforce the future bankruptcies, which were intended to happen
under the planned debt-based monetary system.
County Sheriffs were slowly being federalized, as well as County
Coroners being phased out as elected officials who could serve writs on
the Sheriff, stand in for the Sheriff upon removal or retirement, and
summon juries for wrongful death investigations.
Driver’s licensing and vehicle registration was beginning to be
implemented as a foundational idea in some states during the
Devolutionary Period, but did not take off until after the bankruptcy of
the United States in 1933.
general, the revenues fall into the following...categories... (2) Fees,
or highway-privilege dues, exacted from individuals or corporations
enjoying a special privilege of using the streets and roads of the state
in providing public services, such as those furnished by electric
railway, lighting, telephone, and water companies” (Only five states
reported receipts from this source in 1928.
The receipts, aggregating $210,810, came principally from
electric railways for paving between tracks and for the use of state
bridges.)” - Introduction to
American Government, Frederic A. Ogg, Ph D, LL.D. and P. Orman Ray, Ph
D, ©1931, pp. 788-789.
Another seriously destructive act, which was taking place during
the Devolutionary Period, was that items of insignificant importance,
which should have been merely legislation in the form of a statute, were
actually beginning to be encoded into the State constitutions across the
country. Because a
constitution should be the outline of how the government is to run and
amendments should be few and of significant importance, adding acts of
legislation to them only served to trivialize and weaken them in the
public mind all the way to present day.
We also, as a society, started treating our representatives as
“delegates” and demanded they represent the “will of the people”
from one moment to the next. Since
the learned and educated scholar was unable to impress his knowledge and
understanding of a matter over and above the powerful force of the will
of the people, our legislation began to slip rapidly toward total
Referendums also came into use during the Devolutionary Period
slowly, but persistently, in order to reduce the power and effectiveness
of representatives; thus transforming us into a Democracy, rather than
The office of representative deteriorated further with the
creation of the recall vote. Despite
the lessons learned from the history of Athens where generals were
elected by popular vote and subject to recall every two months (and that
system of government eventually destroying itself), we began subjecting
representatives to the same brisk winds of change that always occur
within a populous by threatening them at every turn with recall.
This further subjected them to the “will of the people” and
moved us even closer to a socialistic democracy.
The widespread use of un-elected commissions and/or associations began
to develop in the Devolutionary period. With so-called
"model" legislation being drafted by lawyers, commissioners,
or other un-elected persons, the State legislature assumed less and less
control over the understanding of a law and delegated that authority of
understanding those groups. Some sources of legislation come from
such obscure groups as: The Council of State Governments, the
American Law Institute, the American Bar Association, the National
Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, the Committee of
Corporate Laws of the Corporations Section of the American Bar
Association, the National Association of Secretaries of State, and the
International Association of Commercial Administrators, to name a few.
None of these entities are elected by the people and the bills they
produce are lackadaisically treated in the various State Legislatures by
being presented as "ought to pass" and "ought not to
pass" on the House floor with little or no debate or understanding
of the language presented.
Acquiescence of our money supply and the control thereof was devolved to
a private, for-profit corporation known as the Federal Reserve bank in
1913. The Federal Reserve was authorized by Congress to legally
counterfeit money from nothing and loan said 'credit' to the government
and all of the citizenry. Those colorable letters of credit, back
by nothing but a promise, were then to be paid in gold. Since no
gold was loaned out and the loans required the principal plus interest
to be paid in gold, our nation quickly found itself unable to pay its
bills, which culminated in the bankruptcy of the United States in 1933.
Like the First Bank of the United States' and the Second Bank of the
United States' charters, the Federal Reserve bank also enjoyed an
initial 20 year charter - which, coincidentally was due to expire and up
for renewal in 1933.
Today, the Federal Reserve Bank effectively controls our military
to the Defense Production Act of 1950 and Executive Order 10480 of
August 14, 1953, as amended, the (Federal Reserve) board prescribes
regulations under which the Federal Reserve banks act as fiscal agents
of certain government departments and agencies in guaranteeing loans
made by banks and other private financing institutions to finance
contracts for the procurement of materials or services which the
guaranteeing agencies consider necessary for the national defense.” - Encyclopedia
of Banking and Finance, Glen G. Munn, ©1983, pp. 350 - 351.
note in the above excerpt from the Encyclopedia of Banking and Finance
how the Federal Reserve banks act as agents and, as the guaranteeing
agencies, they decide and approve loans for materials or services, which
they consider necessary for the national defense.
This is just a brief illustration how events established during
the Devolutionary Period have transpired over a short period of time and
expanded the powers of the privately owned Federal Reserve Bank.
Because all money is created from nothing and collateralized by
the labor and property contained within the United States, the events
that have been listed above as transpiring during the Devolutionary
Period must have taken place in order for a fiat, ledger-entry money
system to be formed.
prior to the Devolutionary Period was the formation of the Organization
of American States (1890), which is a multi-lateral agreement between
all nations in the Western Hemisphere for a form of regional government
that would eventually operate under the auspices of a global dictating
body. The OAS finally received its charter in 1948. The
Inter-American Defense Board, the oldest permanently constituted,
international military organization in the world (formed in 1942) acts
as the technical military advisor for the OAS. - U.S. Government
Manual, 2000-2001, pp. 585-589.
In 1891, Maine began the practice of licensing dogs for a fee - a
practice previously unheard of.
In 1893, Maine adopted in part the tenth plank of Karl Marx's Communist
Manifesto by requiring compulsory free education for all children
between the ages of eight and fifteen years old.
In summary, the powers that set the Devolutionary Period into
motion accomplished the following goals:
Guard replaces State Guard/a.k.a. Militia
jurisdiction over the citizenry
laid for Driver’s licensing/vehicle
laid for use of Birth/Marriage Certificates
of the National Forests for use as
collateral on future loans.
the elimination of the County Coroner’s Office
Federalizing Police and Sheriff offices
of Debtor Prisons
Police begin forming
out of Republican form of government at the
of the nation’s monetary system and
transferring the wealth (gold) to a privately-owned
the Bureau of Census under the
Undersecretary for Economic Affairs within the
Department of Commerce.
Constitutions began to be amended with mere acts
of legislation, instead of true legitimate amendments.
began to bend to the “will of the
people” from one day to the next - moving us toward
a total democracy (rule by the majority).
recall vote was instituted in order to threaten
representatives with removal if they did not do the
will of the people.
public education system began to stop teaching
civics and political science from the standpoint that
18.) Initiatives and referendums replace
power of representatives.
19.) The widespread use of un-elected
commissions and associations in writing
20.) Congress devolved power over
the money to a private, for profit
central bank - the Federal Reserve.
21.) National Sovereignty began
eroding with the entertainment of the
concept of the Organization of American States.
logical culmination of all of these new powers was to set the country up
for domination by a world governing body headed up regionally by the
Council on Foreign Relations (formed in 1921) and administered by the
Federal Reserve Bank who controls the supply of all the (credit) money
our country unfortunately adopted as a national currency.
After World War I was created, it was hoped by the powers
functioning during the Devolutionary Period that the US would accept the
League of Nations treaty for that purpose.
The treaty was rejected, but all of the framework was finally in
place to plunge the nation into unpayable debt, an ultimate bankruptcy
and eventual receivership all under the perceived control of “official
authorities” who are individually too compartmentalized to understand
how their own job (i.e. state police, national guard, tax assessors,
bankers, etc.), as established during the Devolutionary Period effects
changes on a geopolitical scale.